Home Ethereum Ethereum’s History: From Zero to 2.0

Ethereum’s History: From Zero to 2.0

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By Jianing Wu, Senior Analyst, Analysis

Vitalik Buterin got here up with the concept of Ethereum in 2013 on the age of 19. Later that yr, he revealed a white paper describing Ethereum as “a next-generation good contract and decentralized utility platform,”1 marking the start of Ethereum’s journey.

Ethereum is now the second-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, accounting for roughly 18% of the cryptocurrency market. Its success can’t be separated from a creatively elegant concept, a properly executed improvement course of and the continued assist of the neighborhood.

On this article, we’ll look again on the historical past of Ethereum’s improvement and supply an outlook for what’s upcoming.


Ethereum’s invention was impressed by Bitcoin.

Bitcoin established the muse for decentralized blockchain know-how. However its performance is restricted to peer-to-peer digital money transfers. Seeing this limitation, Buterin wished to develop blockchain’s performance to programmable apps.

At first, he wished to realize this by including a extra superior scripting language on high of Bitcoin to permit good contracts processing, however this concept was rejected by the Bitcoin neighborhood. Then, Buterin determined to create a very new blockchain to allow this “world laptop.”

In late 2013, Buterin revealed his white paper outlining the concept of Ethereum. In January 2014, Ethereum was first introduced at The North American Bitcoin Convention in Miami. The concept attracted many builders, together with Gavin Wooden, who revealed the well-known ”Yellow Paper” on the technical implementation for Ethereum2.

By the top of 2014, Ethereum had its first crowdfunding, elevating greater than $18 million by promoting the native token, ether. Early Ethereum founders and builders2 additionally hosted the primary Ethereum convention, referred to as DEVCON0, throughout which the builders met for the primary time.


Ethereum’s improvement was deliberate with 4 principal phases. Every stage represents a obligatory system-wide improve of the community, at which level previous variations are not supported. They’re additionally referred to as “arduous forks.”

Inside the primary phases, there have been deliberate and unplanned sub-upgrades.

July 30, 2015–March 14, 2016: Implementing fundamental technical basis (“Frontier” part)

On July 30, 2015, the primary model of Ethereum (Ethereum 1.0) was launched, referred to as Frontier. It had the 2 most simple features: to allow customers to mine ether and run good contracts. The aim of the preliminary stage was to get the community began, so miners may arrange their mining processes and builders may check their decentralized functions (DApps).

A minor fork referred to as Frontier Thawing adopted, throughout which gas was restricted to five,000 per transaction, to make sure transaction charges weren’t too excessive and hindering utilization.

March 14, 2016–October 16, 2017: Enhancing infrastructure to handle safety points (“Homestead” part)

If Frontier was the working model of Ethereum, Homestead was the “safer” model of Frontier.

Ethereum’s safety vulnerability was delivered to public consideration with the DAO hack. Launched in 2016, DAO was an modern concept to permit customers to crowd supply funds. Nonetheless, it failed as a result of a bug in its good contract code that hackers exploited to steal a portion of the group’s funds. This occasion resulted in a controversial resolution to implement a tough fork on the Ethereum community to return the stolen funds. A part of the neighborhood didn’t settle for the change, making a department referred to as Ethereum Basic, which nonetheless exists immediately.

After struggling a number of DoS (denial-of-service) assaults, two sub-upgrades referred to as Tangerine Whistle and Spurious Dragon had been launched to handle safety points, via adjusting gasoline charges and implementing state clearing.

October 16, 2017–January 2, 2020: Fixing challenges that include enlargement and progress (“Metropolis” part)

Metropolis was a complete enchancment of Ethereum’s safety, privateness and scalability. It solved many challenges Ethereum confronted throughout its scaling course of and introduced a lighter, extra environment friendly expertise for builders and customers. As a result of the replace was so difficult, it was launched in two steps: Byzantium and Constantinople.

Byzantium was the primary stage, with principal upgrades launched in 9 patches, additionally referred to as Ethereum enchancment protocols (EIP). These included essential options equivalent to zk-SNARKs3, account abstraction4 and the problem bomb5.

Constantinople was speculated to launch in mid-2018 however was delayed for greater than half a yr as a result of a vital bug discovered hours earlier than its supposed launch. Constantinople was meant to repair any issues which may come up from Byzantium’s implementation. As well as, it laid the groundwork for the transition from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake, which is able to considerably cut back Ethereum’s validation power consumption.

January 2, 2020–2022: Ethereum 2.0 to be extra scalable, safe and sustainable (“Serenity” part)

At the moment, the Serenity stage continues to be in improvement. Also called Ethereum 2.0, this model goals to advance Ethereum to a stage that may be broadly used with out encountering safety or high-volume points.

Particularly, it intends to resolve two principal challenges Ethereum is going through: a clogged community that may solely deal with a restricted variety of transactions per second (with elevated gasoline charges for sooner transactions), and the massive consumption of power that comes with the proof-of-work mechanism.6

Two of the major upgrades are the shift from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake and the implementation of shard chains which will spread the workload of the network.Ethereum 2.0 is envisioned to be more scalable, secure and sustainable, although when (or if) it will ultimately be implemented, and other fallout issues, remain unclear.

Ether Price And Development Stages

Ether Price and Development Stages


After eight years of improvement, Ethereum has gone from an concept to a vivid ecosystem, supported by one of many largest developer communities within the crypto area. As a software program platform, it must evolve to handle its points. Its neighborhood is progressive and has applied a number of important modifications over time. A number of the most essential modifications nonetheless lie forward, and we’ll handle them in additional element in future posts.

Initially published by WisdomTree, 7/15/21


Early founders included Vitalik Buterin, Anthony Di lorio, Charles Hoskinson, Mihai Alisie, Amir Chetrit, Joseph Lubin, Gavin Wooden and Jeffrey Wilcke.

“Zero-Data Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Data,” and refers to a proof development the place one can show possession of sure info, e.g. a secret key, with out revealing that info, and with none interplay between the prover and verifier.


5 Refers back to the enhance of problem in Ethereum’s proof-of-work consensus mechanism.

Proof-of-work is a consensus mechanism used to confirm blockchain transactions’ validity, via fixing computationally intensive puzzles utilizing miners’ computer systems’ processing energy. 

7 Proof-of-stake is one other consensus mechanism that’s used to confirm blockchain transactions. Nonetheless, it does so through the use of miners’ present cash as a stake within the validation course of, which calls for much less laptop processing energy.

Vital Dangers Associated to this Article

There are dangers related to investing, together with the potential lack of principal. Crypto belongings, equivalent to bitcoin and ether, are complicated, usually exhibit excessive value volatility and unpredictability, and must be seen as extremely speculative belongings. Crypto belongings are ceaselessly known as crypto “currencies,” however they usually function with out central authority or banks, will not be backed by any authorities or issuing entity (i.e., no proper of recourse), don’t have any authorities or insurance coverage protections, will not be authorized tender and have restricted or no usability as in comparison with fiat currencies. Federal, state or overseas governments might limit the use, switch, trade and worth of crypto belongings, and regulation within the U.S. and worldwide continues to be growing. Crypto asset exchanges and/or settlement amenities might cease working, completely shut down or expertise points as a result of safety breaches, fraud, insolvency, market manipulation, market surveillance, KYC/AML (know your buyer/anti-money laundering) procedures, non-compliance with relevant guidelines and rules, technical glitches, hackers, malware or different causes, which may negatively affect the value of any cryptocurrency traded on such exchanges or reliant on a settlement facility or in any other case might forestall entry or use of the crypto asset. Crypto belongings can expertise distinctive occasions, equivalent to forks or airdrops, which might affect the worth and performance of the crypto asset. Crypto asset transactions are usually irreversible, which implies that a crypto asset could also be unrecoverable in cases the place: (i) it’s despatched to an incorrect handle, (ii) the wrong quantity is shipped, or (iii) transactions are made fraudulently from an account. A crypto asset might decline in recognition, acceptance or use, thereby impairing its value, and the value of a crypto asset may additionally be impacted by the transactions of a small variety of holders of such crypto asset. Crypto belongings could also be tough to worth and valuations, even for a similar crypto asset, might differ considerably by pricing supply or in any other case be suspect as a result of market fragmentation, illiquidity, volatility and the potential for manipulation. Crypto belongings usually depend on blockchain know-how and blockchain know-how is a comparatively new and untested know-how which operates as a distributed ledger. Blockchain programs may be topic to Web connectivity disruptions, consensus failures or cybersecurity assaults, and the date or time that you simply provoke a transaction could also be totally different than when it’s recorded on the blockchain. Entry to a given blockchain requires an individualized key, which, if compromised, may end in loss as a result of theft, destruction or inaccessibility. As well as, totally different crypto belongings exhibit totally different traits, use instances and threat profiles. Data supplied by WisdomTree concerning digital belongings, crypto belongings or blockchain networks shouldn’t be thought-about or relied upon as funding or different recommendation, as a advice from WisdomTree, together with concerning the use or suitability of any explicit digital asset, crypto asset, blockchain community or any explicit technique. WisdomTree shouldn’t be performing and has not agreed to behave in an funding advisory, fiduciary or quasi-fiduciary capability to any advisor, finish consumer or investor, and has no accountability in connection therewith, with respect to any digital belongings, crypto belongings or blockchain networks.  

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